Politics and Public Management

Chairperson : Ms Florence Mutasa
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About the Department

Vision

To be a unique and pacesetting political and management studies department that produces innovative and high calibre graduates equipped with quality information on politics, new public management, and peace paradigms.

Background

 The department offers undergraduate and post-graduate programmes, namely, Bachelor of Social Sciences in Politics and Public Management Honours Degree and Master of Science in International Affairs respectively. The Bachelor of Social Sciences in Politics and Public Management Honours Degree was introduced for the first time in Zimbabwe in January 2011 at the Midlands State University, with the Master of Science in International Affairs being transferred from the Department of History and Development Studies where it was introduced in January of 2010. The Bachelor of Social Science in Peace Studies being introduced for the first time in August 2014.

In the study of Politics, as with other disciplines in the Humanities, we are interested in learning about the best that has been thought, said and written about human beings living in political relationships. As the late philosopher Charles Frankel once said, it is through the politics that a society talks to itself about things that matter most.

To study Politics is to learn to argue and defend positions, to critically evaluate the nature of the evidence that people provide for what they believe to be true.  To study Politics is to learn to be an analytical thinker and critical in possession of the complex, higher order literacy capacities that are a requirement in every facet of a world that is increasing driven by the need to interact critically, thoughtfully and knowledgeably with large quantities of information.

To study Politics is to learn to reflect on the origins of human kind and the various processes that have shaped human beings’ political, economic and social behaviour. Politics is as Aristotle called it the “queen of the sciences” or that “politics is the Master Science.”

To study Politics is to learn the distribution of power in human beings’ interaction not only amongst themselves but with the environment around them weather natural or metaphysical. To study politics is to learn the dynamics of human interaction in which individuals and groups compete to achieve their goals. This requires us then to study conflict among competing interests and how these competing interests are compromised through competition and cooperation.

To study Politics is to learn to improve your knowledge, your research and analytical skills, and your ability to express your ideas orally and in writing.  The study of politics prepares one not only for employment, but for life, as an informed citizen ready to participate in political activities within interest groups or political parties; related to community organization and political advocacy; or even service as an elected or appointed official.

To study Politics is not to be trained to be a politician. Politics is categorically far more than the study of boring men in boring suits but  the study of power – the what, who, where, why and when of that phenomenon, event or behaviour. Thus to study Politics is to engage in revealing the relationships underlying political events and conditions, and from these revelations attempt to construct general principles about the way the world of politics works.

The Politics and Public Management Department at MSU is a high quality teaching and research environment. We welcome our students into an environment in which debate is encouraged and interaction between students and lecturers including those at the most senior levels is frequent and ongoing. The Department prides itself on being informal and friendly while at the same time being exceptionally demanding of our students to adhere to the rules and regulations. We believe that these dual aspects of our practice are what make us special in the higher education environment and help in achievement of good results.

The Department of Politics and Public Management seeks to develop students who are relevant to the career demands and challenges of governmental and quasi-governmental bodies either locally, regionally and internationally, through teaching and research by developing critical thinking and independent judgment around issues of politics in its various subfields, public management and peace issues. For Public management emphasis will be on the New Public Management approach that is shifting emphasis from the Traditional public Administration to New Public Management

The peace studies programme is interested in learning about the best that has been thought said and written about human beings in political and social relations. It illuminates on skills conflict management , conflict analysis, resolution, and transformation at personal,  interpersonal, intergroup, national, regional, continental, and  international level. As such peace studies envisage that;

To study peace is to learn to reflect and to learn processes that have shaped the history of mankind.

  • To study peace is to learn the power dynamics in human interaction
  • To study peace is to enrich oneself through research and analytical skills expressed orally and in written form.
  • To study peace is not only to prepare one for employment but for life and to be able to engage in peace processes from an informed position at all levels of interaction.

Objectives 

The politics and public management programme aims at producing innovative and high quality graduates equipped with qualities of information on politics and New Public Management paradigm. The programmes endeavours to develop students who are relevant to the career demands and challenges of governmental bodies either locally, regionally and internationally and to  equip students with theoretical, conceptual, ideological and practical skills necessary for the developing critical thinking and independent judgement around issues of politics and public management. The peace programme aims at producing innovative and high quality graduates equipped with quality information in Politics and peace paradigms. The program endeavours to develop students who are relevant to their career demands and challenges of governmental and international bodies. It seeks to equip students with theoretical, conceptual ideological and practical skills necessary for the development of critical thinking around issues of peace.

Mission Statement

  • Commitment to producing students who need to be aware of what is transpiring in the contemporary political and conflict environment so as to have an informed standpoint on persona, local, regional and international issues.
  • Commitment to cutting edge research on political, peace, and public management studies and international issues and to be trend setting in the training of future politicians, corporate managers, researchers, peace makers, responsible international citizens and internationalists.
  • Commitment to the full utilisation of Information Communication Technology in teaching and research.
  • Commitment to producing competent and well-informed players in the globalising and ever competitive knowledge economy.
  • Commitment to generation of new knowledge through research.

Going into The Future

The department looks forward to developing other subfield of politics which are critical in responding to the ever changing world. Specifically, the department envisage the coming up of the Master of Science of Science in Public Management and Leadership, Master of Peace and Security Studies, Honours in Global and Regional studies, among other relevant political science disciplines.

What Students Say About the Programmes in the Department

Studying PPM at MSU is the start of a lifelong journey were one learns how to understand the human mind and how human beings operate. Shammah Muneta. Level 2.1 Honours in Politics and Public Management

It is an insightful journey that sheds light on the past, present and the future of Zimbabwe, Southern Africa and the World. PPM creates Pan-African mentality that engenders feelings of pride and understanding as to how resilient that African people are. It makes me want to be a game changer in the political arena. Alinafe K. M. Seyani Level 2.1 Honours in Politics and Public Management

Studying PPM at MSU is high empowering platform giving room to a high level grilled intellectual mentality and competent intellectual capable of addressing concerns of society. Richard Boozai Level 2.1 Honours in Politics and Public Management

Studying PPM has been more than general academic exposure. It has inculcated, empowered and enriched my opinions and perspectives on what politics is. I now have a more integrated, advanced and more sighted understanding of society. Tomy Ncube Level 2.1 Honours in Politics and Public Management

Studying politics at Midlands State University has been wonderful and educative experience. In the time I have been at the institution I have learnt to the utmost fact that I should be able to predict events. Ebinezal Oscar Muchadenyika Level 2.1 Honours in Politics and Public Management

Studying PPM enlightens you in almost every aspect of life. Socially, politically and economically makes you know and understand human behaviour, what motivates and inspires it. It is the hallmark of enlightment. Tererai Chiriga Level 4.1 Honours in Politics and Public Management

Studying International Affairs at MSU is both an eye opening and scope widening endeavour, equipping one in understanding international system and juxtaposing events in the global system with the Zimbabwean experience.  Gorogodo Evans, Master of Science International Affairs,  Level 1 Semester 1

The International Affairs programme at MSU has been an eye opening experience that provides a deeper understanding and Appreciation of the dynamics in contemporary international politics. Maraire Fungai Promote, Master of Science International Affairs,  Level 1 Semester 1

A thought- provoking and objective programme that is designed to comprehend engagements in the international system. It is introducing a dynamic and new wave of political thinking that will definitely produce diplomats with a difference. Justice Makanza, Master of Science International Affairs,  Level 1 Semester 1

Studying International Affairs at Midlands State University is quite an insightful experience. The programme offers interesting and factual concepts that are fundamental in understanding the world order. The international Affairs programme is an eye opener as it captures contemporary issues vital in the comprehension of the global world. Cathrine Matemba, Master of Science International Affairs, Level 1 Semester 1

Studying HPS at MSU equips one’s intellectual capacity to conduct research in preparation for greater heights. Tafadzwa Chitifa level 2.1 .Honours in Peace Studies

Studying HPS at MSU builds the ability to know how to engage with the community. Crispen Tshuma level 2.1. Honours in Peace Studies

Midlands State University

Zvishavane Campus

Faculty of Social Science

Department of Politics and Public Management

Old Shabani Mine Offices

Box 100

Zvishavane

Zimbabwe

Regulations

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 These regulations shall be read in conjunction with Faculty Regulations and the General Regulations

1.2 The Department of Politics and Public Management seeks to develop students who are relevant to the career demands and challenges of governmental and quasi-governmental bodies either locally, regionally and internationally, through teaching and research, by developing critical thinking and independent judgement around issues of politics, public management and corporate governance issues.

1.3 Emphasis will be on the New Public Management approach that is shifting emphasis from the Traditional Public Administration to New Public Management. Key elements include various forms of decentralising management of public services, increasing use of markets and competition in the provision of public services and increasing emphasis on the performance, output and customer orientation. New Public Management is driven by a combination of economic, social, political and technological factors. The degree will enable students to develop skills and knowledge relevant to careers involving partnerships between the public, private and voluntary sectors. Students will be equipped with skills to investigate the economic, social and political forces which influence public policy and analyse the relationship between the public, private and voluntary sectors.

1.4 The BSc Honours Degree in Politics and Public Management shall be a four year Honours Degree Programme.

2. JUSTIFICATION

2.1 The degree seeks to fill the existing gaps in the training and development of career public servants/ employees, who are relevant to the demands of governmental and quasi-governmental bodies for example central government, Local government, NGOs and International Organisations

2.2 The degree will create career opportunities in the area of Foreign Relations, Public Management (Central and Local Government Management), and International Organisations Management, National Politics, Academia, Consultancy, NGO Sector and Civil Society.

3. AIMS

The broad aims of the programme are to

Fill the existing gaps in the training and development of career public servants/ employees, through development of critical thinking and independent judgement around issues of politics and public management.

Allow students to gain a critical understanding of problems, challenges and dilemmas in contemporary public management.

Provide a platform for research in contemporary political issues and provide home-grown solutions to challenges encountered.

4. CAREER PROSPECTS

4.1 Graduates have career opportunities in both the public and private sector. Among key institutions which can absorb graduates from the programme are:

Central Government Ministries

Local Authorities (Rural and Urban)

Civil Society Organisations

Non-Governmental Organisations

International Organisations

Consultancy Firms

National Political Parties

Academia

Trade Union Movement

5. ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

5.1 Normal Entry

For entry into the BSc Honours Degree in Politics and Public Management candidates must satisfy the normal entry requirements specified in the Faculty Regulations and the General Regulations. In doing so, they must satisfy the following requirements;

Must have obtained at least five `O’-Level subjects including English Language and Mathematics

Must have obtained a pass in any two of the following `A’ Level subjects:

– History

– Sociology

– English Literature

– Divinity

– Management of Business

– Economics or

– Accounting

5.2 Special Entry Requirements

5.2.1 Holders of relevant diplomas or other relevant qualifications shall be eligible for admission at the discretion of the Departmental Board.

5.2.2 Candidates admitted under 5.2 above may be exempted from certain modules at the discretion of the Departmental Board

5.2.3 Exemption from Work Related Learning shall be at the discretion of the Departmental Board

5.3 Mature Entry

5.3.1 Refer to Section 3.3 of the General Regulations.

5.4 Visiting School

5.4.1 The aim of the Visiting School Programme is to provide academic support to those practitioners in the field of Politics and Public Management to upgrade their skills in the area. Ordinarily, these individuals hold qualifications lower than the BSc Politics and Public Management honours degree.

5.4.2 The degree programme will be completed in three years with academic levels 2 and 3 running concurrently.

5.4.3 To qualify for normal entry into the BSc Politics and Public Management honours degree (visiting school), candidates should have at least 5 `O’ Level passes including English Language and Mathematics. In addition, a candidate must have;

Either

– Diploma in Public Management

– Diploma in Diplomatic Studies, or

– Any other relevant tertiary qualification.

Additionally, candidates must have 5 years working experience in the field of Politics and Public Management and proof of employment in the relevant field must be produced.

6. GENERAL PROVISIONS

6.1 Each module contains material equivalent to 36 hours contact time. The core and elective modules are worth four (4) credits each except the dissertation which is worth eighty (8) credits.

6.2 To progress to the next semester, a student is required to have passed at least all the core modules.

6.3 To successfully complete the programme a student must at least pass all the core modules.

6.4 The number of modules taken by any student from outside the department may be restricted and optional modules are offered subject to availability of staff in the department.

6.5 Work Related Learning student deployment shall be approved by the Department.

7. ASSESSMENT

7.1 Examinations, which shall normally be written at the end of each semester, shall comprise three hour papers.

7.2 The method of assessment includes continuous assessment i.e. seminar presentations and write-ups, assignments and tests. Overall assessment shall be computed as follows:

Continuous assessment 40%

Examination 60%

7.3 A student is normally required to attain 100% attendance of lectures and tutorial.

8. FAILURE TO SATISFY EXAMINERS

Refer to Section 9 of the General Regulations.

9. WORK RELATED LEARNING GENERAL GUIDELINES

Refer to Section 8 of the General Regulations.

10. PROVISIONS FOR PROGRESSION

Refer to Section 6 of the Faculty Regulations.

11. GRADING AND DEGREE CLASSIFICATION

Refer to Section 10 of the Faculty Regulations.

12. DEGREE WEIGHTING

Refer to Section 11of the Faculty Regulations.

13. HONORARY DEGREES

13.1 Honorary degrees will be awarded to individuals who have distinguished themselves in Public Affairs

13.2 The Department of Politics and Public Management will offer the following degrees:

Doctor of Public Management (DPM)

Doctor of Philosophy in Political Science (DPSc)

14. PROGRAMME STRUCTURE

The degree shall consist of the following modules (all modules are compulsory):

Level 1 Semester 1

Code Description Credits
HPPM 101 Introduction to Political Theory 4
HPPM 102 Introduction to Political Science 4
HPPM 103 Introduction to Public Management 4
HPPM 104 Theories of International Relations 4
HPPM 105 Central and Local Government Management 4
HCS 100 Introduction to Information Technology 4

Level 1 Semester 2

Code Description Credits
HPPM 106 Political Economy of Zimbabwe 4
HPPM 107 Public Sector Accounting 4
HPPM 108 Political Ideologies, Culture and Change 4
HPPM 109 Performance Management 4
HPPM 110 Constitutional Law 4
HPPM 111 Employment Relations 4

Level 2 Semester 1

Code Description Credits
HPPM 201 Political Economy of Africa 4
HPPM 202 Southern African Politics 4
HPPM 203 Political Philosophy 4
HPPM 204 Politics and Governance in Zimbabwe 4
PPM 205 Public Policy Formulation and Analysis 4
GS 201 Introduction to Gender Studies 4

Level 2 Semester 2

Code Description Credits
HPPM 206 Principles of International Law 4
HPPM 207 Administrative Law 4
HPPM 208 International Organisations 4
HPPM 209 Democracy and Human Rights 4
HPPM 210 Public Sector Human Resource Management 4
HPPM 211 Social Science Research Methods 4

Level 3 Semester 1 and Semester 2

Code Description Credits
HPPM 301 Work Related Learning Report 15
HPPM 302 Academic Supervisor’s Report 15
HPPM 303 Employer’s Assessment Report 10

Level 4 Semester 1

Code Description Credits
HPPM 401 Morden Political Theory 4
HPPM 402 Project Management 4
HPPM 403 International Politics 4
HPPM 404 Diplomacy 4
HPPM 405 Issues in Regional Integration 4
HPPM 406 Public Sector Auditing 4

Level 4 Semester 2

Code Description Credits
HPPM 407 Peace and Security Studies 4
HPPM 408 Public Sector Corporate Governance 4
HPPM 409 Political Consultancy 4
HPPM 410 Dissertation 8

15. MODULE SYNOPSES

Level 1 Semester 1

HPPM 101 Introduction to Political Theory

The module examines the main theoretical perspectives that inform political processes and how countries have reacted to the internal social, economic and political realities of the times as well as to the external variables such as imperialism and globalisation.

HPPM 102 Introduction to Political Science

The module explores the discipline of Political Science as a “science” in the Social Studies with a focus on the study of processes, principles and structures of governments and political institutions.

HPPM 103 Introduction to Public Management

Basic theories and concepts of public management will be examined including issues of public and private goods and their implication on the general populace. The applicability of theories of management will also be explored for example, the scientific theory, and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The module will also explore the old and new paradigms in public management. More emphasis will be on the new public management approach and its practical application in Zimbabwe.

HPPM 104 Theories of International Relations

The module addresses the theories of international relations and how they have informed the conduct of international relations between and among nations-states. It will also address how relations across the globe are addressed in areas of political, economic and cultural cooperation with emphasis on North – South and South -South relations.

HPPM 105 Central and Local Government Management

The module will examine the role of central and local government in the management of public affairs. At central government level, emphasis will be on government and cabinet structure, roles and coordination and government support services within the context of the civil service. The role of treasury and parliamentary control of finance will also be explored. At local government management level, emphasis will be on explaining the structures of local government management in relation to service provision, sources of income, delegated powers and accountability

HPPM 106 The Political Economy of Zimbabwe

The module will explore the colonial history of the country and its correlation with the economic, social and political circumstances currently facing the country. Issues to do with politics of imperialism, corruption, political instability, inclusive development, debt trap, agrarian reforms and economic empowerment, structural and political reforms, globalisation and regional integration will be analysed with a view to fostering ways of overcoming the country’s economic challenges.

HPPM 107 Public Sector Accounting

The module seeks to explore public sector mechanisms for control over public expenditures and resources to ensure greater efficiency and effectiveness in government activities and to ensure the upholding of public sector accounting standards. It considers the public sector environment and how it differs from private markets. An examination of major issues which entail public sector audits and roles of the Comptroller and Auditor General and accountability issues, role of the budget and budget process and management, are examined.

HPPM 108 Political Ideologies, Culture and Change

The module examines the political ideologies and political practices that shape political development in the contemporary world.

HPPM 109 Performance Management

The module seeks to examine how governmental organisations acknowledge how people constitute the real competitive advantage. Performance management is essential to help employees perform at their best and align their contributions with goals, values and initiatives of the organisation.

HPPM 110 Constitutional Law

The objective of the module is to enable students to acquire thorough knowledge of constitutional law and constitution making processes and how constitutional law regulate relations between government and citizens.

HPPM 111 Employment Relations

The module examines the role and objectives of the main actors in employment relations employers, employees and trade unions, and the government and their interactions in collective bargaining, employee involvement/participation, conflict resolution and expression, and the termination of the employment relationship.

HPPM 201 Political Economy of Africa

The module explores the root cause of Africa’s economic underdevelopment and attempts to proffer solutions in addressing the seemingly intractable economic problems of the continent through economic revival and renewal strategies. It explores issues such as the politics of imperialism and underdevelopment, capitalism and agrarian reforms, corruption and Africa’s revolving door: external borrowing and capital flights, inclusive development , how to address the widening informal sector and popular democratic struggles in the context of class, gender and social justice. The module concludes by emphasizing that the structural bottlenecks could be overcome through regional and continental integration and through the maximum development and value addition of the continent’s natural resources like oil, diamonds, gold, copper, platinum etc

HPPM 202 Southern African Politics

The module explores the political processes and institutional framework that inform the conduct of politics in Southern African countries. Emphasise will be on exploring the different levels of political development in Southern African countries and identifying common value systems as the SADC region grapples with the agenda of economic and political integration.

HPPM 203 Political Philosophy

The module seeks to analyse how political philosophy shape the present political and governance systems in contemporary world. The module will explore the applicability of political philosophy in the world. Philosophers like Machiavelli (The Prince), John Locke and Hobbes (social contract), ST Augustine (the heavenly city and the earthly city) and others will be examined and this will enable students to critically analyse how political philosophy shape the present political system.

HPPM 204 Politics and Governance in Zimbabwe

The module seeks to examine how public decisions are made and implemented. Special emphasis will be on issues such as elections, governance and political systems in Zimbabwe since independence to the present.

HPPM 205 Public Policy Formulation and Analysis

The module seeks to critically analyse the public policy making processes, interrelationships between policy formulation, execution, evaluation and revision, models of policy choices, citizen participation in policy making, and administrative responsibility in policy development.

GS 201 Introduction to Gender Studies

The module explores the centrality of gender issues in politics and public management and how these issues could be mainstreamed and managed in the national interest

HPPM 206 Principles of International law

The module seeks to expose students to the dynamics of international law, Principles of international law, as well as their application in specific cases. International law determines the rights and obligations of states. In addition, issues of state succession, state sovereignty, diplomatic law, and the role of international tribunals will be examined.

HPPM 207 Administrative Law

Administrative Law is the body of law that governs the activities of government. The module seeks to examine how government activities are governed. The module explores sources and limits of agency authority and procedures which must be used in investigation, rule making and adjudication. It includes aspects such as the separation of powers, constitutional law and the functions of the Ombudsman.

HPPM 208 International Organisations

The module examines the role and activities of leading international organisations (political and economic) in the development of nations of the world for example the UN, EU, NAM, AU, World Bank, IMF, WTO and GATT. The module further investigates the implications of economic and political regional blocs on relations between developed nations of the North and poor countries of the South for example EU-ACP cooperation and South – South cooperation.

HPPM 209 Democracy and Human Rights

The module will explore the concepts of democracy and human rights which are distinct but interrelated. The values of freedom, respect for human rights and the principle of holding periodic and credible, democratic elections which expresses the will of the people will be analysed in the context of general elections held in developed and developing countries. Human rights law will also be explored.

HPPM 210 Public Sector Human Resource Management

The module will explore HR practices in the public sector. Issues to be covered include the legal framework of HR practice in the public sector, the role of government policy, HR policies, employment practices, i.e. employee resourcing, reward management, labour relations management, developing human resources, equality of opportunities, discipline and grievance procedures, managing change and development.

HPPM 211 Social Science Research Methods

The module explores’ qualitative and quantitative research in social science as well as more specific data-gathering strategies such as interviewing and historical records. The module will examine these tools with an emphasis on their practical and potential contribution to the development of social science research projects. Emphasis will be on establishing clear, high standards for qualitative and quantitative research.

WORK- RELATED LEARNING

HPPM301 Work Related Learning Report

HPPM302 Academic Supervisor’s report

HPPM303 Employer’s Assessment Report

HPPM 401 Morden Political Theory

The objective of the module is to familiarize students with the emergence of political thought since the medieval ages and views of the different political theorists: Western, African and Islamic and to link the teachings with the political systems prevalent today.

HPPM 402 Project Management

The module looks at approaches to project planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Planning tools like project cycle and logical framework will be unpackaged

HPPM 403 International Politics

The module will explore theories of international politics, how states and non-state actors cooperate and compete on political issues for example human rights, trade, peace and security, environmental protection. It will also explore transnational issues and global problems. A comparative perspective of the USA, Japan and BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) will be used to examine how these countries approach the issues highlighted above within the context of their political systems.

HPPM 404 Diplomacy

The module explores bilateral, regional and multilateral diplomacy and its practical application in the international system. It also explores the theory and application of diplomatic law.

HPPM 405 Issues in Regional Integration

The module will explore regional integration initiatives in Africa, Europe and elsewhere and their practical implications on nation-states.

HPPM 406 Public Sector Auditing

The module will explore budgeting, revenue raising, auditing and how funds are used in governmental and quasi-governmental organisation. The main emphasis will be on the functions of the Treasury, the Comptroller and Auditor- General and Parliament in the management of public funds.

HPPM 407 Peace and Security Studies

The module seeks to broaden the student’s understanding of the conceptual underpinnings of `peace’ and `security’. Only with a thorough conception of what peace and security entails, will the individual student and society alike be better able to deal with the threats not only to peace and security at the level of nation-state, but also at regional and international levels. It also seeks to analyse the extent to which states, as major actors in the international system, have attempted to promote and safeguard international peace and security.

HPPM 408 Public Sector Corporate Governance

The modules will address ethical and unethical behaviour in the running of governmental and quasi-governmental organisations. Emphasis will be on cultivating good corporate governance in governmental organisations. Concepts like corruption, accountability, responsibility, integrity and transparency will be examined. Also quantitative and qualitative corporate governance issues will be examined.

HPPM 409 Political Consultancy

The module offers a theoretical and practical insight into the relationship between political decision-making, political communication, political media strategy and political campaigning. The module will also examine research in policy development, legislative and regulatory changes, and the interpretation and analysis of political phenomena.

HPPM 410 Dissertation

Students will carry out research on a topic of their choice concerning pertinent issues in politics and public management.

REGULATIONS FOR THE MASTER OF SCIENCE IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS (MSIA)

1. PREAMBLE

These regulations shall be read in conjunction with the Faculty of Social Sciences Regulations and the General Academic Regulations for Postgraduate Degrees, hereinafter referred to as the General Regulations.The degree shall be awarded to candidates who have successfully completed the programme and passed the examinations in accordance with regulations set in the Faculty.

2. OBJECTIVE

2.1 The programme is for students interested in careers in contemporary international affairs.
2.2 The programme aims to develop the sound conceptual, analytical and critical skills that are required in dynamic and complex modern international relations contexts.
2.3 It intends to equip students with both theoretical and practical skills that are relevant to International institutions as well as government departments.

3. CAREER PROSPECTS

International Affairs graduates have career opportunities in a wide array of institutions and organisations which include the following:

  • Government Ministries and Departments
  • International Governmental Organizations
  • International Non Governmental Agencies
  • International Civil society
  • Consultancy in International Affairs
  • Academia

4. ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

4.1 To be enrolled into the programme, prospective students should be having a good honours degree in Political Science/Public Administration/Management, International Studies, Law, History, Economics, or Development Studies
4.2 Other degree holders shall be eligible for admission at the discretion of the Departmental Board

5. DURATION
The Master of Science in International Affairs is a one and half-year block-release programme structured to meet the developmental needs of Zimbabwe, the region and beyond.

6. GENERAL PROVISIONS

The number of modules taken by any student from outside the department may be restricted.

7. ASSESSMENT

Examinations, which shall normally be written at the end of each semester, comprise three-hour papers for theoretical modules.

  • Continuous assessment includes tests and essays.
  • Failure to meet deadlines shall be taken to mean failure to carry out assigned work.
  • A student is normally required to attain 100% attendance of lectures.

8. WEIGHTING

Examinations contribute 60 % towards the final mark of a module. Continuous assessment contributes 40 % towards the final mark of a module.

9. MARKING SCHEME AND CLASSIFICATION

The following marking scheme shall apply for all modules:

Range of Marks Classification
80- 100% Distinction
70- 79% Merit
50 – 69% Pass
0 – 49% Fail

MODULES TO BE STUDIED:
LEVEL ONE SEMESTER ONE

Core Modules
Code Description Credits
MSIA 701 Theories of International Relations 4
MSIA 702 International Political Economy 4
MSIA 703 International Institutions 4
MSIA 704 Foreign Policy 4
Options
MSIA 705 Zimbabwe s International Affairs 4
MSIA 706 International Governance and Development 4
MSIA 707 Africa s International Relations 4
LEVEL ONE SECOND SEMESTER
Core Modules
MSIA 710 Diplomacy 4
MSIA 711 Global Peace and security 4
MSIA 712 International Law 4
MSIA 713 Research Methods 4
Options
MSIA 714 Geopolitics 4
MSIA 715 International Human Rights Law 4
MSIA 716 Regional Political Relations 4
LEVEL TWO SEMESTER ONE
MSIA 800 Dissertation 8

10. MODULE DESCRIPTION

1. MSIA 701 Theories of international relations

This course provides students with some of the foundations of international relations as an analytical field of research.  The aim is to introduce students to some of the major theoretical developments in the field of international relations since its inception as a self-conscious scholarly discipline.

2. MSIA 702 International Political Economy

The module is concerned principally with understanding the interaction between political actors and economic forces in the international system.

3. MSIA 703 International Institutions

The module serves to analyse the political theory of international institutions and to increase understanding of the contemporary policy issues surrounding the work of International institutions.

4. MSIA 704 Foreign Policy

The module examines a variety of alternative theoretical models of how states formulate, implement and evaluate their foreign policies.

5. MSIA 705 Zimbabwe s International Affairs

The module surveys Zimbabwe’s international relations, identifying key theoretical foundations, key actors, and the overall making of foreign policy process.

6. MSIA 706 International Governance and Development

The module examines aspects of the structures and processes of global governance, especially within the UN system, and also governance in regional groupings. This module also takes a comprehensive and critical look at international development examining what it has accomplished in the twentieth century and what form it should take in the twenty-first century.

7. MSIA 707 Africa s International Relations

The module explores the major issues on relation between state and non state actors on the African continent. Conflicts, cooperation, trade and diplomacy among other issues will be examined.

8. MSIA 710 Diplomacy

 This module will cover in some detail the work of diplomatic agencies in the execution of foreign policy and their organization to accomplish that work. It will also cover issues to do with bilateral and multilateral diplomacy and diplomatic law.

9. MAIA 711 Global Peace and Security

The module aims to ground students in the central theoretical and practical aspects of global security. This is taught in the context of an understanding of the main approaches to International peace and security.

10. MSIA 712 International law

The module explores the key issues in international law. It examines competing approaches and considers the nature and sources of international law. The module examine issues, among others, dispute settlement, international privileges and immunities, the law of the sea, environmental protection and human rights, outer space and air law, and use of force.

11. MSIA 713 Research Methods

The module provides a general overview of qualitative and quantitative research methods in social science research and a more intensive focus on survey research methods (data collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation).

12. MSIA 714 Geopolitics
The module provides a comprehensive overview of the major issues, ideas, institutions, and interests that make up the global politics. Particular emphasis is given to the relationship between the global environment and the global economy, as well as to the issue of global environmental governance. Specifically, the module dwells on explaining and predicting international political behavior of actors in international politics primarily in terms of geographical variables.

13. MSIA 715 International Human Rights Law
This module will analyse in detail the norms and regimes established at the international and regional levels to protect and promote human rights. It will trace the growth of international human rights law from its beginnings as part of the law of minority rights and diplomatic protection through to the proliferation of human rights instruments and bodies which followed in the wake of the atrocities of WWII.

14. MSIA 716 Regional Political Relations

The module examines relations between state and non state actors within geographical regions of the world. It also explores the creation and implementation of institutions that express a particular identity and shape collective action within geographical regions.

15. MAIA 800 Dissertation
This is a thesis of at least 20 000 to 40 000 words that is based on a wide research on international affairs issues with the assistance of a supervisor.

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN PEACE STUDIES HONOURS DEGREE (HPS)

1. INTRODUCTION

1.2 These regulations should be read in conjunction with  Faculty Regulations and the General Regulations

1.2 The Department of Politics and Public Management seeks to develop students who are relevant to the career demands and challenges in issues of conflict, peace and reconciliation.

1.3 Emphasis will be on illumination of issues surrounding peace, conflict, conflict resolution, conflict transformation, reconciliation and unity.

The BSc Honours Degree in Peace Studies shall be a four year Honours Degree Programme.Â

2. JUSTIFICATION

    • The degree seeks to fill the existing gaps in the training and development of peace builders and conflict managers.
    • Specifically, this is done through development of critical thinking and independent judgement around issues of peace and reconciliation.
    • The programme provides a platform for research on issues of peace, conflict and reconciliation.
    • The programme will not only be of importance to Zimbabwe as a nation but to societies beyond where conflict has negatively impacted on the society.

 

3.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

    • The broad aims of the programme are to:
      • Fill the existing gaps in the training and development of career peace builders and conflict managers, through development of critical thinking and independent judgement around issues of peace, conflict, and reconciliation.
      • Allow students to gain a critical understanding of problems, challenges and dilemmas in peace, conflict and reconciliation.
      • Provide a platform for research in peace economics, conflict and reconciliation.
    • The specific objectives of the programme are to:
      • To increase knowledge and awareness of basic issues of war, peace, justice, reconciliation and nonviolence
      • To articulate the need and necessity of peace and harmony in all contexts
      • To identify the root causes for violence and its manifestations, and designing ways of dealing with conflict situations, pre, during and post period.
      • To promote the culture of peace in personal and social settings
      • To teach and impart skills to students  in the design of Conflict resolution and mediation mechanisms
      • To produce future leaders with knowledge on peace based leadership.
      • To develop skills needed for active involvement in the field of peace and conflicts.

4.0 CAREER PROSPECTS
4.1 Graduates have career opportunities in both the public and private sector. Among key institutions which can absorb graduates from the programme are:

  • Central Government Ministries
  • Local Authorities (Rural and Urban)
  • Civil Society Organisations
  • Non-Governmental Organisations
  • International Organisations
  • Consultancy Firms
  • Political Parties
  • Academia

5.0 ENTRY REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Normal Entry
For entry into the BSc Honours Degree in Peace studies candidates must satisfy the normal entry requirements specified in the Faculty Regulations and the General Regulations. In doing so, they must satisfy the following requirements;

  • Must have obtained at least five ‘O’-Level subjects including English Language.
  • Must have obtained a pass in any two of the following ‘A’ Level subjects:
  • History
  • Economics
  • SociologyÂ
  • Divinity
  • Geography
  • English Literature
  • Shona/Ndebele

5.2 Special Entry Requirements
5.2.1 Holders of relevant diplomas or other relevant qualifications shall be eligible for admission at the discretion of the Departmental Board.

5.3 Mature Entry
5.3.1 Refer to Section 3.3 of the General Regulations.

5.4 Visiting School
5.4.1 The aim of the Visiting School Programme is to provide academic support to those practitioners in the field of Peace studies to upgrade their skills in the area. Ordinarily, these individuals hold qualifications lower than the BSc Peace studies.
5.4.2 The degree programme will be completed in three years with academic levels 2 and 3 running concurrently.

6.0 GENERAL PROVISIONSÂ
6.1 Each module contains material equivalent to 36 hours contact time. Modules are worth four (4) credits each except the dissertation which is worth eight (8) credits.
6.2 To successfully complete the programme a student must at least pass all the modules.
6.3 The number of modules taken by any student from outside the department may be restricted and optional modules are offered subject to availability of staff in the department.
6.4 Work Related learning student placement shall be approved by the Department.

7.0 ASSESSMENT
7.1 Examinations, which shall normally be written at the end of each semester, shall comprise three hour papers.
7.2 The method of assessment includes continuous assessment i.e. seminar presentations and write-ups, assignments and tests. Overall assessment shall be computed as follows:

  • Continuous assessment 40%
  • Examination 60%

7.3 A student is normally required to attain 100% attendance of lectures and tutorials.
7.4 Assessment of Work related Learning; Refer to section 10 of the General regulations.

8.0 FAILURE TO SATISFY EXAMINERS
Refer to Section 9 of the General Regulations.

9.0 WORK RELATED LEARNING GENERAL GUIDELINES
Refer to Section 10 of the General Regulations.

10.0 PROVISIONS FOR PROGRESSION
Refer to Section 6 of the Faculty Regulations.

11.0 GRADING AND DEGREE CLASSIFICATION
Refer to Section 10 of the Faculty Regulations.

12.0 DEGREE WEIGHTING
Refer to Section 11 of the Faculty Regulations.

13.0 HONORARY DEGREES
13.1 Honorary degrees will be awarded to individuals who have distinguished themselves in Peace issues.
13.2 Awarding of honorary degree. Refer to Section 17 of the General regulations
14:0 PROGRAMME STRUCTURE
The degree shall consist of the following modules (all modules are compulsory):

LEVEL 1.1  CREDITS
HPS 101 Introduction to Peace and Conflict 4
HPS 102 Introduction to Conflict Analysis 4
HPS 103 Peace and Economics 1 4
HPS 104 Basic Research Methods 4
HCS 115 Introduction to Information Technology 4
CS 101 Communication Skills 4
LEVEL 1.2
HPS 106 Principles of Peace Based Leadership and Governance 4
HPS 107 Peace and Democracy 4
HPS 108 Principles of Non-violence 4
HPS 109 Peace and Reconciliation 4
HPS 110 Conflict and Human Displacement 4
LEVEL 2.1
HPS 201 Aspects in Peace and Conflict in Africa 4
HPS 202 Peace Education 4
HPS 203 Theory and Practice of Conflict Transformation 1 4
HPS 204 Peace Economics 11 4
GS 201 Introduction to Gender Studies 4
EMT 205 Entrepreneurship 4
LEVEL 2.2
HPS 206 Advanced Research Methods in Peace and Conflict 4
HPS 207 Religion, Peace and Conflict 4
HPS 208 Civil Society and Peace Building 4
HPS 209 Economics of War and Peace 4
HPS 210 Gender and Conflict 4
HPS 211 Negotiations and Mediation 4
LEVEL 3
HPS 301 Work Related Learning Report 15
HPS 302 Academic Supervisor’s Report 15
HPS 303 Employer’s Assessment Report 10
LEVEL 4.1
HPS 401 Peacekeeping in Africa 4
HPS 402 Law of Peace and Conflict 4
HPS 403 International Institutions and Conflict Resolution 4
HPS 404 Media and Conflict 4
HPS 405 Community Politics 4
LEVEL 4.2
HPS 407 Comparative Peace Processes 4
HPS 408 Theory and Practice of Conflict Transformation 2 4
HPS  409 Diplomacy 4
HPS 410 Dissertation 8

 

15: MODULE SYNOPSES
HPS 101 Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies
Since time immemorial, violent conflict has been a major feature of many societies, and this has given rise to a plethora of initiatives and movements dedicated to achieving lasting world peace. This module introduces students to the key issues and debates in peace, and conflict studies. The module introduces students to the concepts, theories and issues in peace and conflict. It considers the history of peace and conflict studies as a new sub-discipline, and highlights global developments that continue to make it dynamic and relevant.

HPS 102 Introduction to Conflict Analysis
Conflict Analysis is defined as the study of the profile, causes, actors and dynamics of conflict. It can be applied at different levels-interpersonal, small group, inter-group, interstate, and transnational levels. Efforts to resolve conflicts must be presaged by holistic analysis of conflict drivers, dynamics, and context. Thus, the module explores issues in conflict resolution, conflict management and conflict transformation. It espouses on the actors involved, the context of conflict resolution, the role of third parties, and peace-building and reconciliation.   It addresses the question of peace accords and peace processes and their bearing on sustainable peace.

HPS 103 Peace and Economics 1
It has been envisaged that the economic situation of any society is linked to the stability and peacefulness nature of the society.Peace economics studies the design of political, economic, and cultural institutions and their policies and actions that prevent, mitigate, or resolve violent conflict within and between societies. It includes both positive economics – the description and explanation of economic phenomena or “what is”-and normative economics – the expression of value judgments about economic fairness and public policy, or “what should be”. The module therefore examines the linkage between the economy and peace. Of essence is how elementary economics may be employed to think about economic aspects of violence, war, and peace.

HPS 104 Basic Research Methods
Research is vital in generating reliable and valid knowledge. This module examines various research techniques for gathering data.  It also highlights their respective strengths and weaknesses. The fundamentals to be introduced are from both qualitative and quantitative approaches in research.

HPS 106 Principles of Peace Based Leadership and Governance
Poor leadership and governance have been cited as the major factors contributing to the degeneration of politics into warfare.  Principled and skilled leadership is core to the politics of peace. This module introduces students to 21st-century models of leadership, with an emphasis on collaborative leadership, and analysis of ways in which gendered attitudes and practices impact and influence leadership and governance. This module will expose students to multiple opportunities for active participation in leadership. Through readings, class presentations, experiential exercises, journal reflections, and small group discussion, students will be challenged to articulate their own leadership development.

HPS 107 Peace and Democracy
It has been realised that a society founded on democratic principles is most likely to be peaceful. Therefore the module examines the linkage between peace and democracy.  At the international level, democracies cooperate more and fight less to protect greater welfare levels arising from trade gains and foreign direct investment.At the community level, economic empowerment through micro-credit lending has increased incomes, stymied corruption, empowered women, increased child – education, and raised social consciousness about health and sanitation, the environment, and human rights.On the other hand, antidemocratic behavior including use of violence, rejection of elections, and transgression of authority (being ‘above the law’) negatively affects trade and investment, both locally and internationally. Through a series of case studies, students will analyze large and small-scale processes of economic and social development that support peace.

 

HPS 108 Principles of Non-violence
The module assesses themes and aspects of non-violence. Various approaches to non-violence will be surveyed. Of essence is also the need to understand how non-violence has shaped some societies. This module is designed to provide an in-depth and multi-disciplinary perspective on civilian-based movements and campaigns that defend and obtain basic rights and justice around the world, impacting the global security environment. Students will become familiar with the theory and practice of active nonviolence as a method of social change and a way of life. Students will learn how to apply the tactics and tools of nonviolence to promote peace and justice, safety and equality – personally, locally, in communities and globally. Since nonviolence is about organized activity, this module offers many exercises that require students to “embody” nonviolence. Thinking and talking about nonviolent protests is one thing, but engaging in the nonviolent action, especially when faced with highly emotional and tense situations, requires practice.

HPS 109 Peace and Reconciliation
The module examines the concepts and theoretical foundations of peace and reconciliation. It explores various methods that can be employed in the search for peace and reconciliation among societies.Cases will be drawn from societies that have gone through the processes of reconciliation, analysing the extent to which these processes have succeeded and challenges involved.
HPS 110 Conflicts and Human Displacement
Human displacement, dislocation and dispossession are some of the major consequences of violent conflict.This module considers the causes, dynamics and consequences of human displacement. It highlights the tensions that arise between host populations and immigrants. It also considers policies and strategies for rehabilitating both externally and internally displaced persons refugees and victims of forced migration.

HPS 201 Aspects in Peace and Conflict in Africa
Violent and costly conflict remains pervasive in parts of the African continent.This module investigates contemporary aspects in peace, conflict and economic conditions in Africa. Major focus specifically addresses the causes, dynamics and consequences of the degeneration of politics into warfare.Special emphasis revolves around how the economic, military, natural resources, environmental, religious situation are central to peace and conflict in Africa.

HPS 202 Peace Education
The module focuses on the role of education in enhancing peace in a society. It provides students with the theory and practice of peace education.Education can serve as an important form of peace building. The purpose of this class is to introduce students to the field of peace education and provide an overview of the history, central concepts, scholarship, and practices within the field.Peace education is an enterprise of positive peace, involving the promotion of human rights and social justice.Students will learn how peace education works both within the formal educational system and through non-formal channels such as community-based movements and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Peace education is not only about the content of education, but also the process. This module will aim to model peace pedagogy by promoting inquiry, collaboration, and dialogue and giving students the opportunity to practice these skills through student presentations on the course readings and topics. Group activities provide opportunities to learn about negotiation, cooperation and working together. Along with the freedom to challenge and contradict comes the responsibility of developing skills and attitudes necessary to be proactive and effective peacemakers, including critical thinking, active listening, reflection, self-discipline, respect and negotiation.

HPS 203 Theory and Practice of Conflict Transformation
Conflicts change relationships, affecting communication, patterns of social organization, and altering images ourselves and of ‘the other’.However, the consequences of conflict can be transformed so that self-images, relationships, and social structures improve as a result of conflict instead of being harmed by it.These transformations, which include increasing understanding between people, and changing the way conflict is expressed (aggressively and competitively versus cooperatively), must take place at both the personal and the systemic level.  It focuses on the conflict transformation at the personal level, laying the conceptual groundwork for studyingsystemic (societal) conflict transformation in HPRS 408. Today the world faces a number of interrelated security challenges and threats, and there is no consensus on how best to deal with these. Conflict transformation has been developed as framework through which the conflict can be dealt with. This module examines the key theories, issues, debates and challenges in conflict transformation. The module also examines practical issues in conflict transformation.

HPS 204 Peace Economics 11
Creating sound economic policy and a stable macroeconomic framework is essential to societies recovering from violent conflict. This module extends beyond economic principles covered in Peace Economics I, into the wider realm of development policies that tackle inequalities of opportunity and build positive local social capital.This module explores the link between natural resources and conflicts, paying special attention to land productivity and the impact of resource inequalities in triggering conflicts.

HPS 206 Advanced Research Methods in Peace and Conflict Studies
The module introduces students to advanced qualitative and quantitative research methods.The major emphasis will be on the development of measures and peace indexes for use not only in Zimbabwe but also regionally, continentally and globally as well.

HPS 207 Religion, Peace and Conflict
Religion has a role to play in integrating and disintegrating societies.Therefore, religion is central in comprehending peace and conflict.Thus the module examines the impact of religion on peace and conflict across the World.

HPS 208 Civil Society and Peace Building
Civil society organizations are playing an increasingly important role in conflict resolution and peace-building worldwide.This module explores the role of civil society in peace building and post war reconstruction.

HPS 209 Economics of War and Peace
Complex relationships exist between economics, violent conflict and war, business, the environment, security and development.This course introduces students to political-economic linkages between conflict and peace at various levels of analysis. Students will explore the legal and illicit businesses associated with the conduct of war; scrutinize the role of business in conflict zones (including their human rights obligations) in terms of negative and positive impacts; and examine the economic aspects of moving from conflict to peace. Students will use economic analysis to assess peace and conflict drivers in particular cases.

HPS 210 Gender and Conflict
Conflicts tremendously affect gender relations, and this fact is often ignored in post war reconstruction and peace building.This module considers the gender dimensions of peace-building, and focuses specifically on strategies and policies for gender equity in postwar reconstruction.  It also highlights the role of women in peace building. Violent conflict impacts upon gender relations in many ways. This module examines the ways in which war engender changes, both positive and negative, in gender relations. It also considers the gendered nature of violent conflict.

HPS 211 Negotiations and Mediation
People in organizations operate in environments in which political and economic pressures are strong, and in which resources — natural and human resources as well as time and money – may be scarce.Moreover, various diverse and competing groups (both within and outside of the organization) often do all they can to influence the goals and direction of the organization.People want to participate in decisions that affect them, and will resist accepting decisions dictated by others.People differ, and they use negotiation to handle their differences.Whether the realm is business, government, or family and friends, people reach most decisions through negotiation.Students in this module will learn negotiation, the central skill in managing conflict, creating value, and distributing resources under these circumstances.

HPS 401 Peacekeeping in Africa
Attempts have been made to bring to an end conflicts that have embroiled the African continent.Peacekeeping has been one approach that has been used in Africa to try and address this menace. The modules therefore seek to examine the theory and practice of peacekeeping in Africa.Illuminating on the key challenges and successes and how best the challenges can be addressed.

HS 402 Law of Peace and Conflict
Ideally, wars should be waged according to specific rules and principles,which include among others, codes for the treatment of prisoners of war and civilians; in reality, few observe these principles. This module considers the laws of peace and war as contained in the Geneva Conventions, and highlights the challenging of enforcing these rules.

HPS 403 International Institutions and Conflict Resolution
Lasting peace requires strong and effective institutions for upholding the values and principles of peace building.This module identifies such institutions, evaluates their performance record and considers ways of strengthening and capacitating them.

HPS 404 Media and Conflict
The media plays an important role in a conflict situation, and it has the potential of either fuelling or contributing to ending violent conflict.This module considers the many, and often conflicting roles of the media in conflict. It raises questions of ‘who’ controls the media institutions and with ‘what’ effect when it comes to issues of peace and conflict.  Overally, the module focuses on the role of the media in the management and resolution of conflict as well as facilitating reconciliation.

HPS 405 Community Politics
Local communities are the prime consumers and perpetrators of conflict. Understanding how they relate to each other helps in illuminating on how conflict and peace ensue. Communities are made up of groups – neighborhoods, businesses, churches, special interest groups, and cultural groups (to name a few). Such groups come into conflict over different interests (i.e. housing development versus environmental preservation), roles and responsibilities (i.e. workers and supervisors, unions and management ), allocation of scarce resources (i.e. funding for certain programs/activities), and with cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity associated with changing populations. Changes -in people, in financial resources, in leadership, or in characteristics of the world in which organizations and communities exist – can heighten competitive responses to problems.How do groups in organizations and communities negotiate these tensions? And what ‘rules’ or ‘ processes’ facilitate constructive versus destructive conflict, within organizations and communities? This module is explores why conflict emerges in communities and community groups, how to minimize, deal with, “manage”, or resolve community and group conflict, and how conflict is used by groups as a strategy to bring about desired changes. In essence the module examines the theory and practice of politics in low level communities with aim of comprehending the basic level where issues of conflict emerge.

HPS 407 Comparative Peace Processes
Different societies have dealt with the problems of peace and war in culturally specific ways.This module offers a comparative analysis of different culturally specific approaches to peace building and conflict resolution.This module examines the ending of wars through peace process negotiations.Peace processes are negotiations that are far more complex than any other kind of international or intergroup negotiation.Peace processes involve bargaining between the principal conflict parties and among their own internal factions and constituencies, and sometimes involve outside interveners who want to mediate among the parties. Students will be able to understand the options for structuring such a negotiation, the issues that need to be resolved, the trade-offs and tensions that are involved and the dangers and challenges along the way.Cases from around the world will be analyzed in depth so that learners can identify the dynamics, patterns, factors involved.

HPS 408 Theory and Practice of Conflict Transformation 2
Differing cases of conflict transformation provides different experiences.These cases can be used in ever emerging cases on conflict transformation. The module therefore examines the theory and practice of conflict transformation in selected cases.The cases examined provide students with practical examples on conflict transformation. This module builds on HPRS 203 by exploring how to change relationships between groups, within societies. At the heart of systemic conflict transformation lies the challenge of transforming relations after violent political conflict – in particular between people who have been directly involved in and/or affected by the violence, but also including members of wider society. Systemic transformation–the process of increasing justice and equality in the social system as a whole – involves transforming the way conflict is expressed, from organized violence to use of legal systems, advocacy campaigns, and legislation and policy that eliminates oppression, improves sharing of resources, and institutionalizes non-violent resolution of conflict between groups of people.

HPS 409 Diplomacy
Diplomacy is the major platform for facilitating, mitigating and dealing with complex, 21st century challenges including nuclear proliferation, climate change, economic disparities, and cooperation to combat transnational organized crime. The module therefore surveys in diplomatic skills to be employed in ending conflict and perpetuating peace.

HPS 410 Dissertation
Students will carry out research on a topic of their choice concerning pertinent issues in peace, conflict, reconciliation and related issues.